FYBCOM Syllabus
FYBCOM Syllabus Semester I

The three-year Bachelor of Commerce degree programme teaches applicants the fundamentals of accounting, commerce, management, and other related subjects.

In the first Year Bachelor of Commerce have a total of 7 subjects, Second Year Bachelor of Commerce, have a total of 7 subjects and Third Year Bachelor of Commerce have a total of 6 subjects.

To get the list of FYBCOM subjects and syllabus, read the entire article.

FYBCOM Syllabus
(Semester 1)

(FYBCOM means First Year Bachelor of Commerce)

Following are the list of FYBCOM Syllabus (Semester I):

1) Accountancy & Financial Management – I
2) Commerce I
3) Business Economics – I
4) Foundation Course – I
5) Mathematical & Statistical Techniques – I
6) Business Communication – I
7) Environmental Studies – I

Full Guide about FYBCOM Subjects

FYBCOM Semester 1 (Syllabus)

FYBCOM Sem 1 Accountancy & Financial Management – I Syllabus

a) Accounting Standards:
Concepts, Benefits, Procedures for Issue of Accounting Standards
Various AS :
AS – 1 : Disclosure of Accounting Policies
(a) Purpose (b) Areas of Policies (c) Disclosure of Policies (d) Disclosure of Change in Policies (e) Illustrations
AS – 2 : Valuation of Inventories (Stock)
(a) Meaning, Definition (b) Applicability (c) Measurement of Inventory (d) Disclosure in Final Account (e) Explanation with Illustrations.
AS – 9 : Revenue Recognition
(a) Meaning and Scope (b) Transactions excluded (c) Sale of Goods (d) Rendering of Services (e) Effects of Uncertainties (f) Disclosure (g) Illustrations

b) Inventory Valuation
Meaning of Inventories
Cost for Inventory Valuation
Inventory Systems : Periodic Inventory System and Perpetual Inventory System
Valuation : Meaning and Importance
Methods of Stock Valuation as per AS – 2 : FIFO and Weighted Average Method
Computation of Valuation of Inventory as on balance sheet date: If inventory is taken on a date after the balance sheet or before the balance sheet

a) Expenditure : Capital, Revenue
b) Receipts : Capital, Revenue
c) Adjustment and Closing Entries
d) Final Accounts of Manufacturing Concerns (Proprietary Firm)

a) Meaning
b) Basis of Allocation of Expenses and Incomes/Receipts
c) Inter Departmental Transfer : at Cost Price and Invoice Price
d) Stock Reserve
e) Departmental Trading and Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet

a) Meaning
b) Calculation of interest
c) Accounting for hire purchase transactions by asset purchase method based on full cash price
d) Journal entries, ledger accounts and disclosure in balance sheet for hirer and vendor (excluding default, repossession and calculation of cash price)

FYBCOM Sem 1 Commerce I Syllabus

a) Introduction : Concept, Functions, Scope and Significance of business, Traditional and Modern Concept of business.
Objectives of Business : Steps in setting business objectives, classification of business objectives, Reconciliation of Economic and Social Objectives.
b) New Trends in Business : Impact of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization, Strategy alternatives in the changing scenario, Restructuring and Turnaround Strategies.

a) Introduction : Concept and Importance of business environment, Inter-relationship between Business and Environment.
b) Constituents of Business Environment : Internal and External Environment, Educational Environment and its impact,
International Environment – Current Trends in the World,
International Trading Environment – WTO and Trading Blocs and their impact on Indian Business.

a) Introduction : Business Planning Process; Concept and Importance of Project Planning; Project Report; Feasibility Study Types and its Importance.
b) Business Unit Promotion :
Concept and Stages of Business Unit Promotion,
Location – Factors determining location and Role of Government in Promotion.
c) Statutory Requirements in Promoting Business Unit :
Licensing and Registration Procedure, Filling returns and other documents, Other important legal provisions.

a) Introduction : Concept and Importance of Entrepreneurship, Factors Contributing to Growth of Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneur and Manager, Entrepreneur and Intrapreneur.
b) The Entrepreneurs : Types of Entrepreneurs, Competencies of an Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Training and Development Centers in India, Incentives to Entrepreneurs in India.
c) Women Entrepreneurs : Problems and Promotion.

FYBCOM Sem 1 Business Economics – I Syllabus

Scope and Importance of Business Economics – basic tools- Opportunity Cost principle- Incremental and Marginal Concepts. Basic economic relations – functional relations: equations- Total, Average and Marginal relations- use of Marginal analysis in decision making
The basics of market demand, market supply and equilibrium price- shifts in the demand and supply curves and equilibrium

Demand Function – Nature of demand curve under different markets
Meaning, significance, types and measurement of elasticity of demand (Price, income cross and promotional)- relationship between elasticity of demand and revenue concepts
Demand Estimation and Forecasting: Meaning and significance – methods of demand estimation : survey and statistical methods (numerical illustrations on trend analysis and simple linear regression)

Production Function: Short run analysis with Law of Variable Proportions- Production function with two variable inputs- isoquants, ridge lines and least cost combination of inputs- Long run production function and Laws of Returns to Scale – expansion path – Economies and diseconomies of Scale and economies of scope

Cost Concepts: Accounting cost and economic cost, implicit and explicit cost, social and private cost, historical cost and replacement cost, sunk cost and incremental cost -fixed and variable cost – total, average and marginal cost – Cost Output Relationship in the Short Run and Long Run (hypothetical numerical problems to be discussed)
Extensions of Cost Analysis: Cost reduction through experience – LAC and Learning Curve – Break even analysis (with business applications)

FYBCOM Sem 1 Foundation Course – I Syllabus

a) Understand the multi-cultural diversity of Indian society through its demographic composition: population distribution according to religion, caste, and gender;
b) Appreciate the concept of linguistic diversity in relation to the Indian situation;
c) Understand regional variations according to rural, urban and tribal characteristics;
d) Understanding the concept of diversity as difference.

a) Understand the concept of disparity as arising out of stratification and inequality;
b) Explore the disparities arising out of gender with special reference to violence against women, female foeticide (declining sex ratio), and portrayal of women in media;
c) Appreciate the inequalities faced by people with disabilities and understand the issues of people with physical and mental disabilities.

a) Examine inequalities manifested due to the caste system and inter-group conflicts arising thereof;
b) Understand inter-group conflicts arising out of communalism;
c) Examine the causes and effects of conflicts arising out of regionalism and linguistic differences.

a) Philosophy of the Constitution as set out in the Preamble;
b) The structure of the Constitution – the Preamble, Main Body and Schedules;
c) Fundamental Duties of the Indian Citizen; tolerance, peace and communal harmony as crucial values in strengthening the social fabric of Indian society;
d) Basic features of the Constitution.

a) The party system in Indian politics;
b) Local self-government in urban and rural areas;
c) The 73rd and 74th Amendments and their implications for inclusive politics;
d) Role and significance of women in politics.

FYBCOM Sem 1 Mathematical & Statistical Techniques – I Syllabus

a) Shares : Concept of share, face value, market value, dividend, equity shares, preferential shares, bonus shares. Simple examples.
b) Mutual Funds : Simple problems on calculation of Net income after considering entry load, dividend, change in Net Asset Value (N.A.V.) and exit load. Averaging of price under the Systematic Investment Plan (S.I.P.)

a) Permutation and Combination: Factorial Notation, Fundamental principle of counting, Permutation as arrangement, Simple examples, combination as selection, Simple examples, Relation between nCr and nPr Examples on commercial application of permutation and combination.
b) Linear Programming Problem: Sketching of graphs of (i) linear equation Ax + By + C = 0 (ii) linear inequalities. Mathematical Formulation of Linear Programming Problems upto 3 variables. Solution of Linear Programming Problems using graphical method up to two variables.

STATISTICS

a) Measures of Central Tendencies: Definition of Average, Types of Averages: Arithmetic Mean, Median, and Mode for grouped as well as ungrouped data. Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles. Using Ogive locate median and Quartiles. Using Histogram locate mode. Combined and Weighted mean.
b) Measures of Dispersions: Concept and idea of dispersion. Various measures Range, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation, Variance, Combined Variance.

a) Probability Theory: Concept of random experiment/trial and possible outcomes; Sample Space and Discrete Sample Space; Events their types, Algebra of Events, Mutually Exclusive and Exhaustive Events, Complimentary events.
Classical definition of Probability, Addition theorem (without proof), conditional probability.
Independence of Events: P( A Ç B ) = P(A) P(B). Simple examples.
b) Random Variable: Probability distribution of a discrete random variable; Expectation and Variance of random variable, simple examples on probability distributions

a) Decision making situation, Decision maker, Courses of Action, States of Nature, Pay-off and Pay-off matrix; Decision making under uncertainty, Maximin, Maximax, Minimax regret and Laplace criteria; simple examples to find optimum decision. Formulation of Payoff Matrix. Decision making under Risk, Expected Monetary Value (EMV); Decision Tree; Simple Examples based on EMV. Expected Opportunity Loss (EOL), simple examples based on EOL.

FYBCOM Sem 1 Business Communication – I Syllabus

a) Concept of Communication – Models of Communication – Linear/ Interactive / Transactional / Shannon and Weaver (to be only discussed in class) Meaning, Definition, Process, Need, Feedback
Emergence of Communication as a key concept in the Corporate and Global World
b) Impact of technology Enabled Communication – Types – Internet, Blogs, E-Mail, Moodle, Social Media (Facebook, Twitter & Whats’app Advantages and Disadvantages
c) Communication at Workplace
Channels – Formal and Informal – Vertical, Horizontal, Diagonal, Grapevine
Methods – Verbal / Nonverbal (including Visual), Business Etiquettes
d) Business Ethics
Ethics at Workplace – Importance of Business Ethics
Personal Integrity at the workplace
Business Ethics and Media
Computer Ethics
Corporate Social Responsibility
e) Problems in Communication / Barriers to Communication :
Physical / Semantic / Language / Socio-Cultural / Psychological Barriers, Ways to Overcome these Barriers
f) Listening
Importance of Listening Skills, Obstacles to Listening, Cultivating Good Listening Skills

a) Theory of Business Letter Writing
Parts, Structure, Layouts – Full Block, Principles of Effective Letter Writing, Principles of Effective E-mail Writing
b) Personnel Correspondence
Statement of Purpose, Letter of Recommendation, Job Application Letter and Resume, Letter of Appointment (to be only discussed in class), Letter of Acceptance of Job Offer, Letter of Appreciation, Letter of Resignation

a) Commercial Terms used in Business Communication (to be only discussed)
b) Paragraph Writing
Developing an idea, using appropriate linking devices, etc.
Cohesion and Coherence, etc.

FYBCOM Sem 1 Environmental Studies – I Syllabus

Environment : Meaning, definition, scope and its components; concept of an ecosystem: definition, Characteristics, components and types, functioning and structure; Food Chain and Food Web – Ecological Pyramids – Man and environment relationship; Importance and scope of Environmental Studies.

Meaning and definitions; Classification and types of resources, factors influencing resource utilisation; Resource conservation – meaning and methods – conventional and non-conventional resources, problems associated with and management of water, forest and energy resources – resource utilization and sustainable development

Population explosion in the world and in India and arising concerns – Demographic Transition Theory – pattern of population growth in the world and in India and associated problems – Measures taken to control population growth in India; Human population and environment – Environment and Human Health – Human Development Index – The World Happiness Index

Concept of Urbanization – Problems of migration and urban environment – changing land use, crowding and stress on urban resources, degradation of air and water, loss of soil cover impact on biodiversity, Urban heat islands – Emerging Smart Cities and safe cities in India – Sustainable Cities

Reading of Thematic Maps
Located Bars, Circles, Pie Charts, Isopleths, Choropleth, and Flow Map, Pictograms – Only reading and interpretation.
Map Filling
Map filling of World (Environmentally significant features) using point, line and polygon segment.

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FYBCOM Syllabus
(Semester 2)

FYBCOM Syllabus
FYBCOM Syllabus Semester 2

Following are the list of FYBCOM Subjects (Semester II) :

1) Accountancy & Financial Management – II
2) Commerce – II
3) Business Economics – II
4) Foundation Course – II
5) Environmental Studies – II
6) Mathematical & Statistical Techniques – II
7) Business Communication – II

FYBCOM Sem 1 Accountancy & Financial Management – II Syllabus

Chapter 1 – Accounting From Incomplete Records
a) Introduction
b) Problems on preparation of final accounts of Proprietary Trading Concern (conversion method)

Chapter 2 – Consignment Accounts
a) Accounting for consignment transactions
b) Valuation of Stock
c) Invoicing of goods at higher price
(Excluding Overriding commission, Normal/abnormal losses)

Chapter 3 – Branch Accounts
a) Meaning / Classification of Branch
b) Accounting for Dependent Branch not maintaining full books by
(i) Debtors method (ii) Stock and Debtors method

Chapter 4 – Fire Insurance Claims
a) Computation of Loss of Stock by Fire
b) Ascertainment of Claim as per the Insurance Policy
c) Exclude: Loss of Profit and Consequential Loss

FYBCOM Sem 1 Commerce – II Syllabus

Chapter 1 – Concept of Services
a) Introduction : Meaning, Characteristics, Scope and Classification of Services – Importance of service sector in the Indian context.
b) Marketing Mix for Services : Consumer Expectations, Services Mix, Product, Place, Price, Promotion, Process of Services delivery, Physical evidence and people.
c) Service Strategies : Market research and Service development cycle, Managing demand and capacity, opportunities and challenges in service sector.

Chapter 2 – Retailing
a) Introduction : Concept of organized and unorganized retailing, Trends in retailing, growth of organized retailing in India, Survival strategies for unorganized Retailers.
b) Retail Format : Store format, Non–Store format, Store Planning, design and layout.
c) Retail Scenario : Retail Scenario in India and Global context – Prospects and Challenges in India.
Mall Management – Retail Franchising. FDI in Retailing, Careers in Retailing.

Chapter 3 – Recent Trends In Service Sector
a) Ites Sector : Concept and Scope of BPO, KPO, LPO and ERP.
b) Banking and Insurance Sector : ATM, Debit & Credit Cards, Internet Banking – Opening of Insurance sector for private players, FDI and its impact on Banking and Insurance Sector in India.
c) Logistics : Net working – Importance – Challenges.

Chapter 4 – E-commerce
a) Introduction : Meaning, Features, Functions and Scope of E-Commerce – Importance and Limitations of E-Commerce.
b) Types of E-Commerce : Basic ideas and Major activities of B2C, B2B, C2C.
c) Present Status of E-Commerce in India : Transition to E-Commerce in India, E-Transition Challenges for Indian Corporates; On-line Marketing Research.

FYBCOM Sem 1 Business Economics – II Syllabus

Chapter 1 – Market Structure – Perfect Competition and Monopoly
Perfect competition and Monopoly models as two extreme cases – profit maximisation and the competitive firm’s supply curve – Short run and long run equilibrium of a firm and of industry – monopoly – Sources of monopoly power – short run and long- run equilibrium of a firm under Monopoly

Chapter 2 – Pricing and Output Decisions under Imperfect Competition
Monopolistic Competition : Competitive and monopolistic elements of monopolistic competition – equilibrium of a firm under monopolistic competition, monopolistic competition verses perfect competition- excess capacity and inefficiency – debate over role of advertising (topics to be taught using case studies from real life examples)
Oligopolistic markets: key attributes of oligopoly – Collusive and non collusive oligopoly market – Price rigidity – Cartels and price leadership models (with practical examples)

Chapter 3 – Pricing Practices
Cost oriented pricing methods : Cost – plus (full cost) pricing, marginal cost pricing, Mark up pricing, discriminating pricing, multiple – product pricing – transfer pricing (case studies on how pricing methods are used in business world)
Chapter 4 – Evaluating Capital Projects
Meaning and importance of capital budgeting- steps in capital budgeting – + Techniques of Investment appraisal : Payback Period Method, Net Present Value Method, and Internal Rate of Return Method (with numerical examples)

FYBCOM Sem 1 Foundation Course – II Syllabus

Chapter 1 – Globalisation and Indian Society
a) Understanding the concepts of liberalization, privatization and globalization;
b) Growth of information technology and communication and its impact manifested in everyday life;
c) Impact of globalization on industry: changes in employment and increasing migration;
d) Changes in agrarian sector due to globalization; rise in corporate farming and increase in farmers’ suicides.

Chapter 2 – Human Rights
a) Concept of Human Rights; origin and evolution of the concept;
b) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
c) Human Rights constituents with special reference to Fundamental Rights stated in the Constitution.

Chapter 3 – Ecology
a) Importance of Environment Studies in the current developmental context;
b) Understanding Concepts of Environment, Ecology and their inter-connectedness;
c) Environment as natural capital and connection to quality of human life;
d) Environmental Degradation – Causes and Impact on human life;
e) Sustainable Development – Concept and components; poverty and environment

Chapter 4 – Understanding Stress and Conflict
a) Causes of stress and conflict in individuals and society;
b) Agents of socialization and the role played by them in developing the individual;
c) Significance of values, ethics and prejudices in developing the individual;
d) Stereotyping and prejudice as significant factors in causing conflicts in society.
e) Aggression and violence as the public expression of conflict.

Chapter 5 -Managing Stress and Conflict in Contemporary Society
Types of conflicts and use of coping mechanisms for managing individual stress;
Maslow’s theory of self-actualisation;
Different methods of responding to conflicts in society;
Conflict-resolution and efforts towards building peace and harmony in society.

Topics For Project Guidance : Contemporary Societal Challenges
(a) Increasing urbanization, problems of housing, health and sanitation;
(b) Changing lifestyles and impact on culture in a globalised world.
(c) Farmers’ suicides and agrarian distress.
(d) Debate regarding Genetically Modified Crops.
(e) Development projects and Human Rights violations.
(f) Increasing crime/suicides among youth.

FYBCOM Sem 1 Environmental Studies – II Syllabus

Chapter 1 – Solid Waste Management for Sustainable Society
Classification of Solid Wastes – Types and Sources of Solid Waste ; Effects of Solid Waste Pollution – Health hazards, Environmental Impacts;
Solid Waste Management – solid waste management in Mumbai – Schemes and initiatives run by MCGM – Role of citizens in waste management in urban and rural areas.

Chapter 2 – Agriculture and Industrial Development
Environmental Problems Associated with Agriculture: Loss of Productivity, Land Degradation, Desertification – Uneven Food Production – Hunger, Malnutrition and Food Security – Sustainable Agricultural practices Environmental Problems Associated with Industries – Pollution – Global warming, Ozone Layer Depletion, Acid rain – Sustainable Industrial practices – Green Business and Green Consumerism, Corporate Social Responsibility towards environment

Chapter 3 – Tourism and Environment
Tourism : Meaning, Nature, Scope and importance –Typology of tourism – classification; Tourism potentials in India and challenges before India; New Tourism Policy of India; Consequences of tourism : Positive and Negative Impacts on Economy, Culture and environment – Ecotourism

Chapter 4 – Environmental Movements and Management
Environmental Movements in India : Save Narmada Movement, Chipko Movement, Appiko Movement, Save Western Ghats movement; Environmental Management: Concept, need and relevance; Concept of ISO 14000 and 16000; Concept of Carbon Bank and Carbon Credit, EIA, Ecological footprint; Environment Protection Acts; Concept and Components of Geospatial Technology – Applications of GST in Environmental Management

Chapter 5 – Map Filling
Map Filling of Konkan and Mumbai (Environmentally Significant Features)

FYBCOM Sem 1 Mathematical & Statistical Techniques – II Syllabus

MATHEMATICS (40 MARKS)

Chapter 1 – Functions, Derivatives and Their Applications
a) Concept of Real Functions : Constant function, linear function, xn , ex, ax, log x.
Demand, Supply, Total Revenue, Average Revenue, Total cost, Average Cost and Profit Function. Equilibrium Point, Break-even Point.
b) Derivative of Functions :
i) Derivative as rate measure, Derivative of xn , ex, ax, log x.
ii) Rules of derivatives: Scalar multiplication, sum, difference, product, quotient (Statements only), Simple problems. Second order derivatives.
iii) Applications: Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue, Elasticity of Demand. Maxima and Minima for functions in Economics and Commerce.
(Examination Questions on this unit should be application oriented only.)

Chapter 2 – Interest and Annuity
a) Interest: Simple Interest, Compound Interest (Nominal & Effective Rate of Interest),. Calculations involving upto 4 time periods.
b) Annuity: Annuity Immediate and its Present value, Future value. Equated Monthly Installments (EMI) using reducing balance method & amortization of loans. Stated Annual Rate & Affective Annual Rate Perpetuity and its present value. Simple problems involving up to 4 time periods.

STATISTICS (60 MARKS)

Chapter 3 – Bivariate Linear Correlation and Regression
a) Correlation Analysis : Meaning, Types of Correlation, Determination of Correlation: Scatter Diagram, Karl Pearson’s Method of Correlation Coefficient (excluding Bivariate Frequency Distribution Table) and Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient.
b) Regression Analysis : Meaning, Concept of Regression Equations, Slope of the Regression Line and its Interpretation. Regression Coefficients (excluding Bivariate Frequency Distribution Table), Relationship between Coefficient of Correlation and Regression Coefficients, Finding the equations of Regression lines by method of Least Squares.

Chapter 4 – Time Series and Index Numbers
a) Time Series : Concepts and Components of a Time Series. Representation of trend by Freehand Curve Method, Estimation of Trend using Moving Average Method and Least Squares Method (Linear Trend only). Estimation of Seasonal Component using Simple Arithmetic Mean for Additive Model only (For Trend free data only). Concept of Forecasting using Least Squares Method.
b) Index Numbers : Concept and usage of Index numbers, Types of Index numbers, Aggregate and Relative Index Numbers, Lasperye’s, Paasche’s, Dorbisch-Bowley’s, Marshall-Edgeworth and Fisher’s ideal index numbers, Test of Consistency: Time Reversal Test and Factor Reversal Test. Chain Base Index Nos. Shifting of Base year. Cost of Living Index Numbers, Concept of Real Income, Concept of Wholesale Price Index Number. (Examples on missing values should not be taken)

Chapter 5 – Elementary Probability Distributions
Probability Distributions:
a) Discrete Probability Distribution : Binomial, Poisson (Properties and applications only, no derivations are expected)
b) Continuous Probability Distribution : Normal Distribution. (Properties and applications only, no derivations are expected)

FYBCOM Sem 1 Business Communication – II Syllabus

Chapter 1 – Group Communication
a) Interviews :
Group Discussion, Preparing for an Interview
Types of Interviews – Selection, Appraisal, Grievance, Exit, Online
b) Meetings :
Need and Importance of Meetings, Conduct of Meeting and Group Dynamics
Role of the Chairperson, Role of the Participants
Drafting of Notice, Agenda and Resolutions
Types of Secretaries – Company Secretary / Private Secretary, Functions of Secretaries (only to be discussed and not to be assessed)

c) Committees and Conferences :
Importance & Types of Committees,
Meaning and Importance of Conference
Organizing a Conference
Modern Methods : Skype & Webinar
d) Public Relations :
Meaning, Functions of PR Department
External and Internal Measures of PR
Crisis Management, Press Release

Chapter 2 – Business Correspondence
a) Trade Letters :
Letters of Inquiry, Letters of Complaints, Claims, Adjustments,
Sales Letters, Promotional Leaflets and Fliers,
Consumer Grievance Redreesed Letters,
Letters under Right to Information (RTI) Act

Chapter 3 – Language and Writing Skills
a) Reports and Business Proposals :
Parts, Types, Feasibility Reports, Investigative Reports,
Drafting of Business Proposals
b) Summarisation :
Identification of main and supporting / sub points, Presenting these in cohesive manner.

Tips to score good marks in FYBCOM Exam

  1. Don’t wait until the last minute to start studying: begin early. You’ll have more time to learn the topic and solve questions, the earlier you start.
  2. Remain arranged: Plan a study schedule and stick to it. Take time to rest and refresh during breaks.
  3. Regularly review your notes: Regularly reviewing back your notes will help you keep the content in your memory.
  4. Practice, practice, practice: By working through sample problems and completing sample tests, you can identify your areas of weakness and become familiar with the exam’s format.
  5. Ask for assistance if you need it: If you’re having trouble with the subject, don’t be shy to ask for assistance. You can seek advice from your teacher, a classmate, or a tutor.
  6. Get a good night’s sleep: The night before the exam, be sure to get lots of rest. A mind that has got enough sleep is better prepared to memorize and recall information.
  7. Arrive early on exam day: Arrive early on the day of the exam to give yourself time to settle your worries and mentally prepare.
  8. Stay focused during the exam: Avoid being distracted during the exam by remaining focused. Take a deep breath and return your attention to the activity at hand if you realize that your mind is roaming.
  9. Don’t waste too much time on any one question: keep an eye on the time. If you start to struggle, leave it and return to it later.
  10. Review your exam after you’re done: After you’re finished, review your paper for a while. By doing this, you’ll be able to correct any mistakes you may have made and provide any answers you’re not sure about.